The Function And Structure Of Cardio-Respiratory System During Football Exercise

The Cardiac system refers to the function of the heart in the body. While the respiratory system, talks about the functions of respiratory structures as they help bring about gaseous exchange between the external and internal environment. Then, the cardio-respiratory system explains the working in synergy between the heart and lungs, and the role they play during football sports exercise.

The Human heart pumps and distributes blood round the body during exercise. The human heart consists of four chambers made up of the left and right atria. Also the left and right ventricles, separated by a ventricular septum.

The heart has two pumps in us left and right sides. The pumps in the left side pumps blood to the body tissues. Hence, helps in controlling the direction of flow of blood from the heart. Between the right atrium and right ventricle is the tricuspid valve.

This valve prevents blood from flowing back(regurgitation of blood). Then the pulmonary valve opens which makes it possible for blood to flow in the direction of the lungs through the pulmonary artery. The two sides of the heart are separated by a tissue known as the septum.

The blood which comes back from the lungs through the pulmonary veins flow into the left atrium. And from there flows into the left ventricle, almost at the same time the mitral value closes. The aortico-pulmonary valve then opens to creat a passage for blood to flow to the body tissues.

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Cardiac output refers to the volume of blood pumped per-minute by the right or left ventricle. This increases during football exercise. For instance the cardiac output during rest period is 5 to 6 mil per minute. During exercises, it increase so the body is able to meet the demand of blood required.

Cardiac output depends on two factors, the rate at the which the heart pumps which is known as heart rate. And the amount of blood given out per beat, known stroke volume.


The heart and how it is structured for proper sports exercise, taking part in an effective cardio-respiratory function

CO = HR ₓ SV
Cardiac Heart rate strock
Output Volume.


The heart rate, as we have just seen, is the number of times the heart beat per minute. In non-athletes, the heart rate is about 60 to 80 beats per minute. While in well- trained athletes it reduces to 40-55 beats per minute. And the heart rate can be measured manually by placing the hand on the left breast or by feeling the radial artery in the wrist. It’s important you know the instrument for measuring the heart is called Electrocardiograph. Also it should be noted that the heart rate indicate the efficiency of blood circulation.

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The stroke volume is that amount of blood which the heart pumps per beat in non-athletes. And it ranges from 100 to 110 per beat during exercises, the stroke volume.

We can now see that the function of the cardiac system during exercise is to pump and distribute adequate blood to the body tissue. And it helps so as to sustain the boy with enough oxygen during football exercise.

Our ability to participate in exercise, therefore will depend upon the efficiency of the heart in carrying out its functions.

Meanwhile, the cardiac system alone does not sustain us in exercise. The respiratory system also pays a part. Let us now examine the role of the respiratory system during exercise.


The respiratory system enables the human body to obtain oxygen for use and passes carbondioxide out of the body. The process of taking out used air is known as Expiration. The body organ which is responsible for both inspiration and expiration is the lungs.


The lungs are located very close to the heart. And a wind pipe known as the trachea connects the nose and the mouth to the lungs. The trachea divides into two branches known as bronchi. Each bronchi branches off to the left and right lungs. Also, the bronchi further divides into smaller wind pipes referred to as bronchioles which lead to as alveoli


The cardio-respiratory system as it contributes to football and other athletes health.

Through the alveoli, gaseous exchange takes place, that is the blood is supplied with oxygen. And then, used air, carbondioxide is removed from the body through the process of expiration.

The importance of this exchange is that it sustains participation in an on-going physical activity. This process of gas exchange brought by diffusion. It takes place more rapidly in us when we engage in physical activities football sports.

Just at the beginning of any physical exercise there is a lite increase in ventilation (i.e the supply of air). But as the exercise goes on, ventilation increase and continues at a slower rate in the course of the exercise.

At the end of the exercise, ventilation returns to normal level. Cigarette smoking badly affects ventilation by reducing the amount of oxygen intake. We should therefore, avoid smoking if we are to do well in sports.


Gases are transported in the human body by the blood. The air from the lungs which contains oxygen enters the alveolar capillary membrane. And from there it is exchanged by the process of diffusion with carbondioxide.

Oxygen comes into contact with the blood plasma. Blood plasma combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin, and gets it to the muscles involved in exercise. It break and liberate oxygen. The liberated oxygen is now used to break down stored food in the muscles which release energy for exercise or for the performance of other physical activities.

The process of breaking food down in body tissues is called respiration. It should be noted now that when stored food is broken down in the body, carbondioxide and other toxic compounds are produced by.

These toxic compounds must be removed from the tissues immediately. The carbondioxide that is produced enters the venous blood gets transported to the heart. And then is pumped to the lungs from where it is removed from the body through diffussion and expiration. The Cardio-Respiratory system is no doubt a system not to be overlooked by football players.


When we perform prolonged physical activities we experience what is known as Second Wind. The second wind is the state of the body when the feeling of tiredness gives way to a feeling of energy during a prolonged exercise.

When the second wing is experienced. We are able to continue the performance of an on-going physical activity


At the beginning of a physical exercise some athlete feel some pain in the ribs. This pain is known as ‘A Stitch In The Side’. In some cases it disappears slowly as the performance of physical activities continue. But in some other cases, the pain can increase in this condition. And when that is the case, it is advisable to slow down the activity. If the pain does not disappear, the athlete is advised to stop performing the exercise. So, it’s important that football players and other athletes take very good listen to their cardio-respiratory system.

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